Saturday, 22nd September 2018

samAvartanam, snAnam

 

WHAT?

" samAvartanam समावर्तनम् " means "returning home from the house of the guru".  This samskAram is performed on the completion of the brahmacharya period.  The student life is over and the student is ready to enter the married life called gRuhastAshrama. Students have the option to get married or continue as a perpetual student.  

Those who want to get married undergo this samAvartanam and are called "upakurvANas उपकुर्वाण ".  

The others stay back at the guru's house and pursue more knowledge serving them until death in which case they are called "naiShThika brahmachArees नैष्ठिकब्रह्मचारी ".

samAvartanam is also called " snAnam स्नानम् " because a ceremonial bath is taken by the student which signifies the entry into married life.  After this bath he is called a "snAtaka स्नातक".

There are 3 types of snAtaka:-

1.  vidyA snATakas विद्यास्नातक - These type are the students who complete the entire course of studies but who do not observe the brahmacharya vrata fully.

2. vrata snAtakas व्रतस्नातक - These type are the students who complete all the vratas of the brahmacharya Ashrama but who have not completed the full course of studies.

3. ubhaya snAtakas/vidyAvrata snAtakas विद्याव्रतस्नातक - These type are the students who complete the full course of studies and also all the vratas.  They are considered the best students.

WHEN?

The study of one vEda would require 12 years from the date of joining.  If  a child joins at the age of 8, his samAvartanam would be around the age of 20.   It is upto the student to decide how much to study and when to get married. The student takes permission from his teacher to end the student career and seeks his blessings for marriage.  

It is said that one should not be without an Ashrama even for a second.  The four Ashramas are namely., brahmacharya, gRuhastha, vAnaprastha and sanyAsa.  So abiding by the rules, one should marry immediately after samAvartanam so that he enters into gRuhastAshrama. 

 

 

HOW

samAvartanam procedure according to Apastamba gRuhyasootram for krishnayajur vedis.  paThala 5, khaNDa (SECTION)12

 

1. Shifting to a cow-shed/gOshAlA.

 

सू.1 वेदमधीत्य स्नास्यन्प्रागुदयाद्व्रजं प्रविश्यान्तर्लोम्ना चर्मणा द्वारमपिधायास्ते ।

vEdamadheetya snaasyanpraagudayaadvrajam pravishyaantarlOmnaa charmaNaa dvaaramapidhaayaastE.

After completing the vedic studies, the student takes the bath signifying the end of his studentship.   In the morning he finishes his nitya karmAe and enters a cow-shed (gOshAlA) before sunrise. He hangs sits on a ajinam skin with the hair inside over near its door step and shuts the door of the cow shed.

सू.2 नैनमेतदहरादित्योऽभितपेत् ।

nainamEtadaharaadityObhitapEt

The sun should not shine upon him on that day which means he should not come out until the stars comeout in the evening.

 

2. samAvartana samidAdhAnam समावर्तन समिदाधानम्

 
सू.3 मध्यन्दिनेऽग्नेरुपसमाधानाद्याज्यभागान्ते पालाशीं समिधमुत्तरयाधायापरेणाग्निं कट एरकायां

वोपविश्योत्तरयाक्षुरमभिमन्त्र्योत्तरेण यजुषा वप्त्रे प्रदायापां संसर्जनाद्याकेशनिधानात्समानम् 

madhyandinEgnErupasamaadhaanaadyaajyabhaagaantE paalaasheem samidhamuttaraya adhaayaaparENaagnim kaTa Erakaayaam vOpavishyOttarayaakshuramabhimantryOttarENa yajuShaa vaptrE pradaayaapaam samsarjanaadyaakEshanidhaanaatsamaanam

Shaving (vapanam) of  all parts of the body is done.   After the ceremonies starting from putting wood on the fire till aajyabhaagaa oblations have been performed, at noon, he puts a piece of palaasha wood on the fire with the following mantra of taittireeya brAhmaNam, ekAgni kANdam II,7,1.  

 

CýqÉÇ xiÉÉåqÉýqÉWïûþiÉå eÉÉýiÉuÉåþSxÉåý UjÉÉþÍqÉuÉý xÉÇqÉþWåûqÉÉ qÉlÉÏýwÉrÉÉÿ  pÉýSìÉÌWû lÉý: mÉëqÉþÌiÉUxrÉ xÉýóèýxɱalÉåþ xÉýZrÉå qÉÉËUþwÉÉqÉÉ  

 

uÉýrÉliÉuÉþ 

Meaning:-  I offer oblations to jAtavedas, otherwise called agni who is my friend and who is my wellwisher. 

 

3. vapanam (shaving) वपनम्

He sits down to the west of the fire on a mat or on Eraka grass and recites the next verse Mantra.II,7,2 over a razor and hands it over to the barber (nApitan नापितwith next yajuSh II,7,3  This is called kshurAbhimantraNam क्षुराभिमन्त्रणम् . 

 

§rÉÉýrÉÑwÉÇ eÉýqÉSþalÉå: MüýzrÉmÉþxrÉ §rÉÉrÉÑýwÉqÉç  rɬåýuÉÉlÉÉþ §rÉÉrÉÑýwÉliÉlqÉåþ AxiÉÑ §rÉÉrÉÑýwÉqÉç ।(7.2)

 

ÍzÉýuÉÉå lÉÉqÉÉþÍxÉ xuÉÍkÉþÌiÉxiÉå ÌmÉýiÉÉ lÉqÉþxiÉå AxiÉÑý qÉÉ qÉÉþ ÌWûóèxÉÏ: (7.3).

 

Meaning:- May I have a long life during the three phases of a lifetime, namely childhood, adulthood and oldage just like sages Jamadagni and kashyapa, etc..

tryAyusham §rÉÉrÉÑwÉÇ means bAlyam  बाल्यम्or  kaumaaram कौमारम्, (childhood)

youvanam यौवनम् (youth) and sthaaviram  स्थाविरम् (old age)

 

The rites from pouring warm and cold water together on the hair and then shaving till burying of the hair in the cowdung are performed just like chaulam procedure.  The 13 mantras starting with EýwhÉålÉ uÉÉrÉuÉÑSýMåülÉåirÉåýwÉ: are recited here. Please read samskaaram no.9 for details. 

 

4. mEkhalA upagoohanam मॆखला उपगूहनम् :-

 

सू.4  जघनार्धे व्रजस्योपविश्य विस्नस्य मेखलाम् ब्रह्मचारिणे प्रयच्छति 

सू.5 तां स उत्तरेण यजुषोदौम्बरमूले दर्भस्तम्बे वोपगूहति 

jaghanaardhE vrajasyOpavishya visnasya mEkhalaam brahmachaariNE prayachChati.

taam sa uttarENa yajuShOdoumbaramoolE darbhastambE vOpagoohati.

Then he sits down at the end of  the cow-shed and takes off the girdle (maunjee/mEkhalA) and gives it over to a brahmachaaree.  The brahmachaaree hides it with the next yajuSh (Mantra.II, 7,5) at the root of an udumbara/fig tree or in a forest of darbha grass.

 

CþSqÉýWûqÉýqÉÑwrÉÉþqÉÑwrÉÉrÉýhÉxrÉþ mÉÉýmqÉÉlÉý qÉmÉþaÉÔWûÉýqrÉѨÉþUÉåýÅxÉÉæ ̲ýwÉSèprÉþ: 

Meaning:-The act signals burying of all the sins of the student.

 

5. snAnam स्नानम् :-

सू.6 एवं विहिता- भिरेवाद्भिरुत्तराभिष्षड्भिस्स्नात्वोत्तरयोदुम्बरेण दतो धावते 

evam vihitaa- bhirEvaadbhiruttaraabhiShShaDbhissnaatvOttarayOdumbarENa datO dhaavatE

With the mixture of hot and cold water which was kept ready earlier, he bathes with the 3

verses starting with AÉmÉÉåý ÌWû¸É qÉþrÉÉåýpÉÑuÉý CÌiÉþ ÌiÉýxÉëÉå (taittireeya samhita 4.1.5) and next with the

three verses starting from ÌWûUþhrÉ uÉhÉÉïýzzÉÑcÉþrÉ: mÉÉuÉýMüÉ CÌiÉþ ÌiÉýxÉë:.(taittireeya samhita 5.6.1)

Meaning:- Oh divine waters who are the base of living creatures and their reproduction, shower your choicest blessings.

 

6. dantadhAvanam दन्तधावनम्:-

With the next verse II,7,19, he cleans his teeth using a stick of udumbara/fig wood.

 
Aý³ÉɱÉþrÉý urÉÔþWûSèkuÉÇ SÏbÉÉïýrÉÑUýWûqÉþ³ÉÉSÉå pÉÔþrÉÉxÉqÉç । xÉÉåqÉÉåý UÉeÉÉýÅrÉqÉÉaÉþqÉýjxÉ qÉåý qÉÑZÉýÇ mÉëuÉåÿ¤rÉÌiÉý pÉaÉåþlÉ xÉýWû uÉcÉïþxÉÉ 
 
Meaning:- May the teeth be kept cleaner than the faeces.  May the moon shine brighlty on me and make me glorious.
 

सू.7 स्नानीयोच्छादितस्स्नातः 

snaaneeyOchChaaditassnaata:

He then washes his body using aromatic powders and other such perfumes.

 

7.  vAsa paridhAnam वास परिधानम् :-

सू.8 उत्तरेन यजुषाऽहतमन्तरं वासः परिधाय सार्वसुरभिणाचन्दनेनोत्तरैर्देशताभ्यः प्रदायोत्तरयानुलिप्य मणिं सौवर्णं सोपधानं सूत्रोतमुत्तरयोदपात्रे त्रिः प्रदक्षिणं परिप्लाव्योत्तरया ग्रीवास्वाबध्यैवमेव बादरं मणिं मन्त्रवर्जं सव्ये पाणावाबध्याहतमुत्तरं वासो रेवतीस्त्वेति समानम् 

uttarEna yajuShaahatamantaram vaasa: paridhaaya saarvasurabhiNaa chandanEnOttarairdEshataabhy   pradaayOttarayaanulipya maNim souvarNam sOpadhaanam sootrOtamuttarayOdapaatrE tri: pradakshiNam pariplaavyOttarayaa greevaasvaabadhyaivamEva baadaram maNim mantravarjam savyE paaNaavaabadhyaahatamuttaram vaasO rEvateestvEti samaanam

With the next Yajus Mantra.II, 7, 20, he wraps around a fresh lower garment/vastram called antareeyam अन्तरीयम् around his waist. (this is the first garment).  The vastram is called pancha kachcham.  From now onwards he wears the dhoti in the panchakachCham style. 

 

xÉÉåqÉþxrÉ iÉýlÉÔUþÍxÉ iÉýlÉÑuÉþÇ qÉå mÉÉÌWûý xuÉÉ qÉÉAþ iÉýlÉÔUÉÌuÉþzÉ 

Meaning:-The moon sOma is the diety of the vastra.  May He protect me.

 

8. chandana pradAnam/sauvarnamaNi /bAdara maNi dhAraNam 

चन्दन प्रदानम्/सौवर्नमनि बादरमणि धारणम् :-

 

He then offers perfumed sandal paste (chandanam) to the dieities with the mantra II, 7,21-23.

 

lÉqÉÉåÿ aÉëýWûÉrÉþ cÉÉÍpÉaÉëýWûÉrÉþ cÉý lÉqÉþzÉÉMüeÉleÉýpÉÉprÉÉýÇ lÉqÉýxiÉÉprÉÉåþ SåuÉiÉÉÿprÉÉåý rÉÉ AþÍpÉaÉëÉýÌWûhÉÏÿ: 

Meaning:- I offer this sandal paste to the dEvAs who are always decorated.  

With the next verse M.II, 7,24, he anoints himself with perfumed sandal paste. 

 

AýnxÉýUxxÉÑý rÉÉå aÉýlkÉÉå aÉþlkÉýuÉåïwÉÑþ cÉý rɱzÉþ:  SæuÉÉåý rÉÉå qÉÉþlÉÑýwÉÉå aÉýlkÉxxÉ qÉÉþ aÉýlkÉxxÉÑþUýÍpÉeÉÑïþwÉiÉÉqÉç 

 

Meaning:-Oh apsaras, gandharvas and dEvas, may you bring your aroma to me also.

 
With the next verse Mantra.II, 7,25,  he then ties golden beads (sauvarNa maNi) to a string and moves it inside a pot of water three times from left to right and with manra 26 he ties it around his neck.
 
CýrÉqÉÉãwÉþkÉåý §ÉÉrÉþqÉÉhÉÉý xÉWûþqÉÉlÉÉý xÉWûþxuÉiÉÏ  xÉÉqÉÉý ÌWûUþhrÉuÉcÉïxÉÇ oÉë¼uÉcÉïýÍxÉlÉþÇ qÉÉ MüUÉåiÉÑ  
 
 
AmÉÉþzÉÉåýÅxrÉÑUÉåþ qÉåý qÉÉxÉóèzÉÉþUÏÎzzÉýuÉÉå qÉÉåmÉþÌiɸxuÉ SÏbÉÉïrÉÑýiuÉÉrÉþ zÉýiÉzÉÉþUSÉrÉ 
 
zÉýiÉóè zÉýUSèprÉý AÉrÉÑwÉå uÉcÉïþxÉå eÉÏýuÉÉiuÉæ mÉÑhrÉÉþrÉ 
 
Meaning:-Oh! suvarna(gold).  You are born out of this beautiful earth.  May you shower me with your radiance and brilliance.  May you bless me with longevity, splendour and good deeds.
 
He then ties into a string beads of the bAdara wood (bAdara mani ), moves it around in the water like said above to his left wrist without any mantras.
 
 
9. dviteeya vastra paridhAnam द्वितीय वस्त्र परिधानम् 
 
He wears a fresh upper garment called uttareeyam उत्तरीयम् around his chest with the verses Mantra .II, 7, 27-32..  This is the second garment. 
 

UåýuÉiÉÏÿxiuÉÉýurÉþZwhÉͳÉýirÉåiÉÉ: xÉýWû uÉcÉïþxÉÉ lÉuÉþ cÉ 

 

He then wears 2 yagyOpaveetams as he is fit to to be married now.  There may be questions as to why he wears 2 vastrams and 2 yagyopaveetam now itself.  A person should not remain without an Ashrama.  So it is usually planned to have the marriage on the day immediately following the samAvartanam so that the student enters gRuhastAshrama immediately. It is for this purpose that samAvartanam is usually postponed till the marriage. 

 

10. kunDala dhAraNam कुण्डल धारणम् :-

सू.9 तस्य दशायां प्रवर्तौ प्रबध्य दर्व्यामाधायाज्येनाभ्यानायन्नुत्तरा आहुतीर्हुत्वा जयादि प्रतिपद्यते 

tasya dashaayaam pravartou prabadhya darvyaamaadhaayaajyEnaabhyaanaayannuttaraa aahuteer hutvaa jayaadi pratipadyatE.

He ties two gold ear-rings to on end of the uttareeyam (upper garment) and places them onto the sacrificial leaf called darvi.   He then pours little ghee(Ajyam) on to the knot of earrings and gives oblations with the next mantras II,8,1-8.  

 

1. AÉýrÉÑýwrÉþÇ uÉcÉïýxrÉóèþ xÉÑýuÉÏrÉïóèþ UÉýrÉxmÉÉåwÉýqÉÉæΰþ±qÉç  CýSóè ÌWûUþhrÉýÇ eÉæ§rÉÉýrÉÉÌuÉþzÉiÉÉýÇ qÉÉqÉç 

 

2. EýŠæýuÉÉïýÌS mÉ×þiÉlÉÉýÎeÉ xÉþ§ÉÉxÉÉýWÇû kÉþlÉleÉýrÉqÉç । xÉuÉÉïýxxÉqÉ×þ®ÏýUçý G®þrÉÉåý ÌWûUþhrÉåýÅÎxqÉljxÉýqÉÉÌWûþiÉÉ: 

 

3. zÉÑýlÉqÉýWûóè ÌWûUþhrÉxrÉ ÌmÉýiÉÑËUþuÉ lÉÉqÉÉþaÉëpÉæwÉqÉç   iÉÇ qÉÉý ÌWûUþhrÉuÉcÉïxÉÇ mÉÔýÂwÉÑþ ÌmÉëýrÉÇ MÑüþ 

 

4. ÌmÉëýrÉÇ qÉÉþ SåýuÉåwÉÑþ MÑü ÌmÉëýrÉÇ qÉÉý oÉë¼þhÉå MÑü  ÌmÉëýrÉÇ ÌuÉýzrÉåþwÉÑ zÉÔýSìåwÉÑþ ÌmÉëýrÉóè UÉeÉþxÉÑ qÉÉ MÑü 

 

5.  rÉÉ ÌiÉýU¶ÉÏþý ÌlÉmɱþxÉåýÅWÇû ÌuÉýkÉUþhÉÏý CÌiÉþ  iÉÉÇ iuÉÉþ bÉ×ýiÉxrÉý kÉÉUþrÉÉý rÉeÉåþ xÉýóèUÉkÉþlÉÏqÉýWûqÉç 

 

6.. xÉýóèýUÉkÉþlrÉæ SåýurÉæ xuÉÉWûþ mÉëýxÉÉkÉþlrÉæ SåýurÉæ xuÉÉWûÉþ 

 

7. xÉýqÉëÉeÉþÇ cÉ ÌuÉýUÉeÉþÇ cÉÉÍpÉý´ÉÏrÉÉï cÉþ lÉÉå aÉ×ýWåû । sÉý¤qÉÏ UÉý¹íxrÉý rÉÉ qÉÑZÉåý iÉrÉÉþ qÉÉý xÉóèxÉ×þeÉÉqÉÍxÉ 

 

After these above Ahutis, a jayAdi hOmam with the same verses used above from "idamaham" upto "apAsho punyAya "is performed.  Then the agni upasthAnam is done as usual.

 

सू.11. परिषेचनान्तं कृत्वताभिरेव दक्षिणे कर्ण आबध्नीतैताभिस्सव्ये 

pariShEchanaantam krutvataabhirEva dakshiNE karNa aabadhneetaitaabhissavyE

He performs the parishEchanam i.e sprinkling of water around the agni. Then he wears one of the gold ear-rings utterring the 7 verses from AyushaM upto sRujAmasi stated above in his right ear.  Again with the same verses he wears the other earring in his left ear.

 

11. sragbandhanam स्रग्बन्धनम्

सू.11 एवमुत्तरैर्यथालिङ्गं स्रजश्शिरस्याञ्जनमादर्शावेक्षणमुपानहौ छत्रं दण्डमिति

evamuttarairyathaalingam srajashshirasyaanjanamaadarshaavEkshaNamupaanahou Chatram daNDamiti

Similarly, with the mantras M.II, 8,.9(10 optional) he wears a wreath/garland on his head.

 

zÉÑÍpÉþMåüý ÍzÉUý AÉ UÉåþWû zÉÉåýpÉrÉþliÉÏý qÉÑZÉýÇ qÉqÉþ । qÉÑZÉóèþ ÌWûý qÉqÉþ zÉÉåpÉrÉý pÉÔrÉÉóèþxÉÇ cÉý pÉaÉþÇ MÑü ।।

 

rÉÉqÉWûþU‹ýqÉSþÎalÉz´Éý®ÉWæûþ MüÉqÉrÉÉýlrÉæ  CýqÉÉÇ iÉÉqÉÌmÉþ lɽÉåýÅWÇû pÉaÉåþlÉ xÉýWû uÉcÉïþxÉÉ ।।

 

12. Anjanam आन्जनम् :-

Then he wears collyrium (black pigment for the eyes; kAjal) in his eyes with the mantra M.II,8.11and M.II,9.1-4

 

rÉSÉgeÉþlÉÇ §ÉæMüMÑüýSÇ eÉÉýiÉóè ÌWûýqÉuÉþiÉ EýmÉËUþ  iÉålÉþ uÉÉqÉÉgeÉå iÉåeÉþxÉåý uÉcÉïþxÉåý pÉaÉÉþrÉ cÉ 

 

qÉÌrÉþ mÉuÉïiÉmÉÔÂýwÉÇ qÉÌrÉþ mÉuÉïiÉuÉcÉïýxÉÇ qÉÌrÉþ mÉuÉïiÉ pÉåwÉýeÉÇ qÉÌrÉþ mÉuÉïiÉÉrÉÑýwÉÇ 

 

Meaning:- May this collyrium bring me good sight, prosperity and brilliance to me.  May I be blessed with the strength, vitality and age of the mighty mountains. 

 

13.  Adarsha vEkShaNam (Looking into the mirror) आदर्शा वेक्षणम्

He then looks into his reflection in the mirror with the next mantra II,9.5.

 

rÉlqÉåý uÉcÉïþ: mÉýUÉaÉþiÉqÉÉýiqÉÉlÉþqÉÑmÉýÌiɸþÌiÉ ।  CýSÇ iÉimÉÑlÉýUÉSþSå SÏbÉÉïrÉÑýiuÉÉrÉý uÉcÉïþxÉå 

 

14. upAnadgrahaNam उपानद्ग्रहणम्:-

He then wears a pair of slippers after reciting mantra II,9.6.

 

mÉëýÌiÉý¸å xjÉÉåþ SåýuÉiÉÉþlÉÉýÇ qÉÉ qÉÉý xÉliÉÉþmiÉqÉç  

 

15. Chatra dhAraNam छत्र धारणम् 

Next with the following mantra II,9.7. he carries an umbrella.

 

mÉëýeÉÉmÉþiÉåýzzÉUþhÉqÉÍxÉý oÉë¼þhÉzNûýÌSÌuÉïþµÉeÉýlÉxrÉþ NûÉýrÉÉÅÍxÉþ xÉýuÉïiÉÉåþ qÉÉ mÉÉÌWû 

 

16. daNDa dhAraNam दण्ड धारणम्.

Then with the following mantra II,9.8., he takes a vainava daNDam a stick/staff in his hand.

 

 

SåýuÉxrÉþ iuÉÉ xÉÌuÉýiÉÑ: mÉëþxÉýuÉåþÅ͵ÉlÉÉåþoÉÉïýWÒûprÉÉþÇ mÉÔýwhÉÉå WûxiÉÉþprÉÉqÉÉSþSå ̲wÉýiÉÉå uÉýkÉÉrÉålSìþxrÉý uÉeÉëÉåþÍxÉý uÉɧÉïþblÉýzzÉqÉïþ qÉå pÉuÉý

 

rÉimÉÉýmÉÇ iÉͳÉuÉÉþUrÉ

 

सू.12 वाचं यच्छत्यानक्षत्रेभ्यः 

vaacham yachChatyaanakshatrEbhya:.

Then he maintains silence until the stars appear that evening.

 

17. dishA,nakshAtrANAm upasthAnam ÌSzÉÉlɤɧÉÉhÉÉqÉç EmÉxjÉÉlÉqÉç:-

 

सू.13 उदितेषु नक्षत्रेषु प्राचीमुदीचीं वा दिशमुपनिष्क्रम्योत्तरेणार्धर्चेन दिश उपस्थायोत्तरेण नक्षत्राणि चन्द्रमसमिति

uditEShu nakshatrEShu praacheemudeecheem vaa dishamupaniShkramyOttarENaardharchEna disha upasthaayOttarENa nakShatraaNi chandramasamiti.

When the stars appear, he goes towards the east or north and worships the four directions of the horizon, the moon and the stars (upasthAnam) with the following mantra of taittireeya samhita 4.7.14. 

 
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सू.14 रातिना सम्भाष्य यथार्थं गच्छति

raatinaa sambhaaShya yathaartham gachChati

Then after speaking with a friend he is free to do what he likes.

This ends the samAvartana procedure.  From now on the brahmachAree is called a snAtaka.

 

Alternate samAvartanam procedure without mantras.  Nowadays this silent procedure is followed according to apastambha gruhya sootram patala 5, khanda (section)1.1

tooshNeem samAvartanam तूष्णीम् समावर्तनम्.

अथैतदपरं तूष्णीमेव तीर्थे स्नात्वा तूष्णीं समिधमादधाति

athaitadaparam tooShNeemEva teerthE snaatvaa tooShNeem samidhamaadadhaati.

anugyai (permission) is sought from the AchArya and a sankalpam is made.  The student takes bath in a river/lake silently without any mantras.  He then invokes agni and silently offers one samid stick without mantras.  The samAvartanam procedure is over.